Artificial Feeding Methods | Indications of Artificial Feeding | Bottle Feeding Disadvantages

What is Artificial Feeding Or Bottle Feeding?

The term “artificial feeding” is implied to the condition when a baby is completely deprived of mother’s milk due to some maternal or other causes and the entire dietary demand of the baby is met from sources of food except mother’s milk. 

Artificial feeding methods
Fig: Artificial feeding methods

Principles of Artificial Feeding:

The nutritional needs of the baby should be kept in view during planning an artificial feed. There are as follows:
  1. An average energy requirement of an infant is 100 kcal/kg/day; i.e. about 150ml of milk per kg of body weight per day.
  2. The protein requirement is about 2gm/kg daily during the first 6 months, it declines to about 1.5gm/kg daily by the end of one year. According to this, 13-14gm protein daily is given during the first year of life. In term of calories 8 to 10% of calories are given as protein.
  3. The carbohydrate requirement is about 100gm/kg/daily.
  4. After the age of 4 months, undiluted boiled and cooled milk should be given.
  5. Infants need feeding at frequent intervals about 68 times daily; older babies 5 times daily.
  6. Calorie requirement is increased during illness, e.g. fever and it should be met.

What are the Indications of Artificial Feeding?

Indications of artificial feeding have presented in the below:
  1. Cessation of breast milk secretion,
  2. Diseases of breast,
  3. Prolonged illness of the mother or death of mother,
  4. When the infant is intolerant to lactose,
  5. When the mother is getting anticancer drug,
  6. Working mother.

Disadvantages of Artificial Feeding or Bottle Feeding:

All the disadvantages of artificial feeding have listed in the following:
  1. Inadequate supply (Inappropriate proportion),
  2. Mistakes in proportion,
  3. Infections (gastroenteritis) due to E.coli, shigella, salmonella etc.,
  4. Neonatal tetany,
  5. Hyperosmolality and hypernatraemia,
  6. Obesity,
  7. Malnutrition,
  8. Cow’s milk allergy,
  9. Infantile eczema.

What are the Substitutes of Breast Milk?

Substitutes of human breast milk includes-
  1. Dried whole milk powder,
  2. Cow’s milk,
  3. Goat’s milk (In case of intolerance to cow’s milk),
  4. Vegetable milk which is made from soybean.

How to Sterilize Bottles for Artificial Feeding or Bottle Feeding?

Method of sterilization of bottle has presented in the below:
  1. Bottle should be rinsed with warm water to remove the traces of fat and with cold water to remove milk particles.
  2. Bottle should be cleaned with a brush.
  3. No soap or detergents to be used.
  4. The cap, nipple and bottle should be separated and kept in boiling water for 10 minutes.
  5. Bottle should be sterilized every time before feeding.
More questions related to this article:
  • What is bottle feeding?
  • List all the indications of artificial feeding or bottle feeding.
  • What are the principles of artificial feeding?
  • Present the methods of bottle feeding or artificial feeding.
  • List the disadvantages of artificial feeding in infants.
  • List the best breast milk substitute for newborn.
  • Present the sterilization process of plastic containers for artificial feeding.

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