Thursday, September 5, 2019

Types and Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum | Golgi Apparatus Functions

What is Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)?
Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of membranous canals filled with fluid found throughout the cell and connected to the nucleus. It carries materials throughout the cell for that it’s called the "transport system" of the cell.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Fig: Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER):
There are two types of ER which are explained in the following:

1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
Rough endoplasmic reticulum because it has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.

2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
The other region is called smooth ER because it not attached ribosomes.

Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER):
All the functions of endoplasmic reticulum(ER) have pointed out in the below:
  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum acts as a manufacturing and packaging system in the cell.
  2. ER is mainly responsible for the transportation of proteins and other carbohydrates to another organelle.
  3. It provides an increased surface area for cellular reactions.
  4. It helps in the formation of the nuclear membrane during cell division.
  5. It plays an important role in the formation of the skeletal framework.
  6. ER plays a key role in the synthesis of proteins, lipids, glycogen and other steroids like cholesterol, progesterone, testosterone, etc.
  7. In certain leukocytes (white blood cells), the rough ER produces antibodies.
  8. In pancreatic cells, the rough ER helps to produce insulin for the body.
  9. Smooth ER plays a key role in the synthesis of steroid hormones from cholesterol.
  10. In cells of the liver, it helps the detoxification of drugs and harmful chemicals.
What is Golgi body or Golgi Apparatus?
Golgi apparatus is a smooth surfaced, cistern lie composed of a membrane that is present in the outer nuclear membrane and apex of the cell. 
Golgi apparatus  or Golgi body
Fig: Golgi apparatus  or Golgi body
Functions of Golgi body or Golgi Apparatus:
Some key functions of Golgi body or Golgi apparatus have listed in the following:
  1. Golgi apparatus helps to process and bundle macromolecules like proteins and lipids as they are synthesized within the cell.
  2. Golgi apparatus is sometimes compared with a post office inside the cell since one major function is to modify, sort, and package proteins to proper destinations.
  3. They transport lipids throughout the cell for the creation of lysosomes.
  4. They begin packing, concentration and storage of secretory products released by secretory cells.