Blood Transfusion Reasons | Blood Transfusion Side Effects and Symptoms

What is Blood Transfusion?
Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood components from one person (the donor) into the bloodstream of another person (the recipient). 
Blood transfusion procedure
Fig: Blood transfusion procedure
Indications of Blood Transfusion:
Major indications of blood transfusion have pointed out in the below:
  • Anemia, bleeding disorders (e.g. Hemophilia, thrombocytopenia),
  • Hemorrhage (blood loss is greater than 30% of blood volume),
  • Trauma,
  • Burns,
  • Surgery,
  • Cancer patients requiring therapy,
  • Women in childbirth and newborn babies in certain cases.
Hazards of Mismatched Blood Transfusion:
Hazards of mismatched blood transfusion mean reactions due to transfusion of incompatible blood.

The severity of Transfusion Reactions:
The severity of transfusion reactions maybe-
  • Mild: Fever and chills,
  • Severe: Acute renal failure, shock, and death.
Severity depends upon the amount of blood transfused, type of reaction and general health of the patient.

Sign and Symptoms of Mismatched Blood Transfusion Reactions:
All the sign and symptoms of mismatched blood transfusion reactions have presented in the below:

1. Non-hemolytic transfusion reaction:
It includes-
  • Fever,
  • Difficulty in breathing,
  • Itching.
2. Hemolytic transfusion reaction:
It includes immediate effects and delayed effects.

a. Immediate effects or hazards:
It includes-
  • Fever,
  • Chills,
  • Increased heart rate,
  • Low blood pressure,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Bronchospasm,
  • Nausea,
  • Vomiting,
  • Red urine,
  • Chest pain.
  • Rigor,
  • Pulmonary oedema and congestive cardiac failure (may be developed in some patients).
b. Delayed effects or hazards:
It includes-
  • Haemolysis of red blood cells,
  • Jaundice,
  • Haemoglobinaemia,
  • Haemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine),
  • Renal shutdown: Uremia, Anuria, and acute renal failure.
Hazards or Effects of Blood Transfusion:
Hazards or effects of blood transfusion are four types:

1. Reactions are due to a mismatched (incompatible) blood transfusion- transfusion reaction.

2. Reactions due to massive blood transfusion:
It includes-
  • Circulatory shock,
  • Hyperkalaemia,
  • Hypocalcemia leading to tetany (due to massive transfusion of citrated blood),
  • Haemosiderosis (increased deposition of iron in the form of haemosiderin).
3. Reactions due to faulty techniques during blood transfusion:
It includes-
  • Thrombophlebitis,
  • Air embolism.
4. Transmission of infections:
Blood transfusion without screening leads to the transmission of blood-borne infections as follows:
  • HIV (AIDS),
  • Syphilis,
  • Glandular fever,
  • Hepatitis B, C,
  • Malaria,
  • Herpes.
More questions related to this article:
  1. What is the definition of blood transfusion?
  2. Define blood transfusion.
  3. What are the hazards of mismatched blood transfusion?
  4. What are the indications of blood transfusion?
  5. Write down the hazards of blood transfusion.
  6. What are the effects of mismatched blood transfusion?
  7. What are the hazards of mismatched blood transfusion?
  8. What are the important hazards of blood transfusion?
  9. List down the key effects of blood transfusion.
  10. Mention the severity of transfusion reactions.
  11. What are the symptoms of a mismatched blood transfusion?
  12. What is mismatched transfusion?
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