Monday, March 18, 2019

Common Site of Ectopic Pregnancy | Risk Factor for Ectopic Pregnancy

What is Ectopic Pregnancy or Tubal Pregnancy?
Implantation of the fertilized ovum in allocation outside of the uterine cavity, including the fallopian tubes, cervix, ovary, the cornual region of the uterus and the abdominal cavity. When a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the main cavity of the uterus, an ectopic pregnancy occurs. Generally, the fertilized egg attaches itself to the lining of the uterus. 
At first, ectopic pregnancy affected women may not have any signs and symptoms of early ectopic pregnancy. They may seem very similar to a normal type of pregnancy. She might miss her period and have discomfort in her belly and also tenderness in her breasts. Only about half of the ectopic pregnancy affected women will have all three of the prime signs and symptoms i.e. a missed period, belly pain and vaginal bleeding. 
Ectopic pregnancy
Fig: Ectopic pregnancy
Most Common Sites of Ectopic Pregnancy:
There are some common sites of ectopic pregnancy which are listed in the below:
  • Fallopian tube- It includes Ampulla, Isthmus, Fimbria, and Interstitial etc.
  • Ovary,
  • Cervix,
  • Broad ligament,
  • Very rarely in different sites of the uterus like corneal, rudimentary horn, angular, intramural.
Abdominal activity: Primary- when a fertilized ovum is primarily implanted into the abdominal cavity and in case of secondary- when tubal rupture occurs and implantation occurs in the abdominal cavity.

Outcome of Tubal Pregnancy or Ectopic Pregnancy:
All the outcomes of ectopic pregnancy are listed in the following:

1. Tubal abortion:
It includes-
  • Discharge of ovum into the lumen after rupture of the fallopian tube. It may result in the following:
  • Complete abortion,
  • Incomplete abortion,
  • Complete absorption,
  • Missed abortion-tubal mole.
2. Tubal rupture:
It includes-
  • Intra peritoneal rupture,
  • Extra peritoneal rupture.
3. For fetus death:
After death, the fetus may be-
  • Absorbed completely,
  • Maybe mummified,
  • Maybe calcified,
  • Maybe infected,
  • Adiopocere formation may occur.
Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy:
There are some major risk factors of ectopic pregnancy which are presented in the below:
  1. Pelvic inflammatory disease (6 fold increased risks),
  2. Use of IUCDs (3-5% increased risks),
  3. Smoking (2.5% increased risks),
  4. ART pregnancies (3-5% increase risks),
  5. Tubal damage (Surgical occlusions damage),
  6. Tubal surgery (5.8% increased risks),
  7. Salpingitis isthmic nodes (3.5% increased risks),
  8. Prior ectopic pregnancy (10 fold increased risks),
  9. Risk of the age of ectopic pregnancy is 3 fold greater in women of 35-44 years as compared to 18-24 years.
  10. Non-white race (1.5 fold increase risk).
More questions related to this article:
  1. What is an ectopic pregnancy?
  2. What is tubal pregnancy?
  3. What are the most common sites of a tubal pregnancy?
  4. Where is an ectopic pregnancy located?
  5. What are the common sites of ectopic pregnancy?
  6. List the sites of ectopic pregnancy.
  7. What is the possible outcome of ectopic pregnancy?
  8. What is the possible outcome of a tubal pregnancy?
  9. What are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy?
  10. Who is at risk for an ectopic pregnancy?
  11. What is the major risk factor for ectopic pregnancy?