Monday, March 11, 2019

Ectopic Pregnancy Causes | Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy

What is Ectopic Pregnancy?
Ectopic pregnancy is also termed as tubal pregnancy. It is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus. There are different signs and symptoms which classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. The pain may be narrated as dull, sharp or crampy. If bleeding into the abdomen has occurred, pain may also spread to the shoulder.

Acute bleeding may result in a fainting or shock or fast heart rate. The fetus is unable to survive with very rare exceptions. One of the most common complications of ectopic pregnancy is a rupture with internal bleeding which may lead to hypovolemic shock. In the very first trimester of the pregnancy period, death from rupture is the leading reason for death.
Ectopic pregnancy
Fig: Ectopic pregnancy
Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy:
There are multiple factors which contribute to the relative risk of ectopic pregnancy. In theory, anything that hampers the migration of the embryo to the endometrial cavity could predispose women to ectopic gestation. Previous pelvic infection is the most logical explanation for the increasing frequency of ectopic pregnancy; however, most patients presenting with an ectopic pregnancy have no identifiable risk factor. 40% of ectopic pregnancies have an unknown etiology.

Key Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy:
All the factors of ectopic pregnancy have presented in the following:

A. Tubal Factors:
It includes-
  • Congenital abnormality of the tube: It includes-Undue tortuosity, Diverticula, Accessory lump, and Hypoplasia.
  • Surgery of the tube: It includes-Tubal ligation, TAH within 48 hours of coitus, Tuboplasty.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Distortion of the tube by an adjacent large tumor.
  • Operation in the pelvis in and around uterus/ovary.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease causing tubal adhesion.
  • Tubal Pathology: Here, one is a tubular infection which includes chlamydia trachomatis infection, STD, postabortal (Septic abortion), post puerperal, Post-operative; abnormal peristalsis of the tube and the other one is abnormal peristalsis.
B. Ovarian Factors:
It includes-
  • Fertilization of an un-extruded ovum,
  • Ovarian enlargement is due to prolonged use of ovulation induction drug like clomiphene.
C. Zygote abnormalities:
It includes-
  • Chromosomal abnormalities,
  • Abnormal spermatozoa.
D. Exogenous hormones:
It includes-
  • Progesterone only pill,
  • The morning after pill.
E. Others:
It includes-
  • Cigarette smoking,
  • Hamper tubal motility,
  • Hamper ciliary motility,
  • In vitro fertilization,
  • IUCD,
  • External migration of ovum,
  • Increasing age.
More questions related to this article:
  1. What is the meaning of ectopic pregnancy?
  2. What is meant by ectopic pregnancy?
  3. Discuss ectopic pregnancy.
  4. What are the major causes of ectopic pregnancy?
  5. What are the reasons for ectopic pregnancy?
  6. What are the key factors of ectopic pregnancy?
  7. What is the major risk factor for ectopic pregnancy?