Saturday, December 22, 2018

Splint Meaning | Types of Splints with Pictures

What is Splint or Splinting in Medical Term?
The splint is a hard wrap which is used to support and protect injured ligaments, bones, tendons, and other tissues. Splint helps the broken bones heal by keeping the broken ends together and as straight as possible. Splint also helps with swelling & pain and protects the injured area from further damage.

Purposes of Splinting:
There are some key purposes of splinting which are in the below:

  1. To immobilize the part.
  2. To apply traction and maintain reduction of bone in fracture of long bones.
  3. To prevent or to correct deformity due to muscle spasm.
  4. To prevent complications of a fracture by immobilizing bone fragments.

Items Required for Splinting an Injury:
The below items are mandatory during splinting an injury.

  1. A heavy stick,
  2. A rolled-up newspaper,
  3. A rolled-up towel,
  4. A board or plank.

What Types of Splints in Orthopedics?
The splint is classified into four which are discussed in the following:

1. Straight Splints:
It is a well-padded wooden splint. It is mainly used to immobilize the limbs during intravenous infusion. These splints must be well padded before using. 
Straight splint in orthopedics
Fig: Straight splint in orthopedics
2. Plaster of Paris:
The splints made of Plaster of Paris are less expensive but heavy and can be easily broken and difficult to keep clean. The splints are made up of plaster bandage, usually 6-8 thickness of required length. Plaster of Paris is then drawn through the water and is applied to the area. Here, the layers are rubbed together with the open hand. Roller bandages are used here to keep the slab in position. 
Plaster of Paris splint in orthopedics
Fig: Plaster of Paris splint in orthopedics
3. Cervical Collars:
It is used to give support to the neck. The main uses of cervical collars are-

  • To immobilize the neck in the suspected cervical fracture,
  • To relieve muscle spasms of the neck,
  • To support the head in degenerative disease of the cervical spine and after surgery. 
Cervical collars splints in orthopedics
Fig: Cervical collars splints in orthopedics
4. Thomas Splint:
It is used to give traction in suspected or diagnosed fracture case of the shaft of the femur to immobilize the part. 
Thomas splint in orthopedics
Fig: Thomas splint in orthopedics
It consists of two long rods of metal. The rods are joined proximally by leather covered half of full ring. The ring fits into the groin and distally by a crossbar on which the cord or bandage can be secured. The ring can be turned right or left so that it will fit on either left or right leg. The heel project over the edge of the lowest strip and a pad is placed under the knee to relax. With the help of bandages, the leg is secured to the frame.

Traction is maintained by the use of an ankle hitch, skin traction or skeletal traction. The splint must be elevated to prevent the resting of the heel on the bed.

More questions related to this article:
  1. What is a splint in the human body?
  2. How do you use a splint?
  3. What are the types of splints?
  4. What are the different types of splints in orthopedics?
  5. Mention various types of splints with pictures.
  6. Describe the classification of splints with pictures.
  7. What are the key purposes of splinting in the human body?
  8. Mention some key objects of splinting in the human body.
  9. What types of items required for splinting?
  10. List some necessary items required for splinting.