Monday, December 3, 2018

Medical Terminology List for Reproductive System

What is Reproductive System?
Reproduction is a biological process which includes copulation, fertilization, growth, and development of a new individual of the same species. 
Sexual reproductive or reproduction is the method of producing offspring for the survival of the species and passing on hereditary traits from one generation to the next generation. 
Medical term for reproductive system
Fig: Medical term for reproductive system
Male and Female Reproductive System Medical Terminology:
All the medical terms and definitions related to the reproductive system have explained in the below:

1. Placenta:
(Plakuos= flat cake) describes its typical mature discoid shape (20cm diameter and 3cm thick at term, weight 500-600gm).

2. Angiogenesis:
Development of new vessels from already existing vessels, this process is secondary to vasculogenesis which is the initial formation of first blood vessels by differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (extra-embryonic mesoderm).

3. Angioblasts:

Form blood islands or clusters on the surface of the yolk sac.

4. Chorionic Sac:
The fetal membrane that surrounds the developing embryo.

5. Cord Knotting:
Umbilical cord knotting happens in one percent, prevents the passage of placental blood. Pseudo-knots also happens usually with no effect.

6. Cotyledons:
Maternal side cobblestone attendance, originally placental septa formed grooves is covered with the maternal decidua basalis.

7. Cytotrophoblast:
Extra-embryonic cells or trophoblastic shell surrounding embryo, contribute to villi and placental membranes.

8. Decidua Basalis Reaction:
It occurs in maternal endometrium at the site of and following blastocyst implantation. It is seen as a deposition of glycogen and proliferation of blood vessels.

9. Decidualization:
The process by which uterine stromal cells differentiate in response to both steroid hormones and embryonic signals into large epithelioddecidual cells. This process is essential for the progress of implantation and establishing fetal material communication.

10. Hemotrophicnutrition:
This term is used to describe in late placental development the transfer of blood-borne nutrition from maternal to embryo/fetus compared to early histiotrophic nutrition.

11. Hofbauer Cells:

Placental villi macrophages of mesenchymal originated with potentially additional functions (vasculogenesis/angiogenesis, villi remodeling, regulation of stromal water content) to their macrophage role.

12. Maternal Antibodies:

Antibodies from the mother’s immune system or immunity those are capable of crossing the placental barrier. They can support an immune defense to the embryo, but may also participate in immune disease (fetal erythroblastosis).

13. Maternal Sinusoids:
Placental spaces around chorionic villi which are filled with maternal blood.

14. Nitabuch’s Layer:
It is also known as a fibrinoid layer. The layer formed at the maternal or fetal interface during placentation and is thought to act to prevent excessively deep conceptus implantation. Fibrin type fibrinoid (maternal blood-clot product) and matrix type fibrinoid (secreted by invasive extravillous trophoblast cells).

15. Placenta Accrete:
Abnormal, adherence with the absence of decidua basalis.

16. Placental Arteries:
It is paired, carry deoxygenated blood and waste from the embryo.

17. Placental Blood:
Blood found within the placental vessels. Obviously part of the fetal blood, but can be collected at birth for therapeutic use containing blood stem cells.

18. Placental Blood Vessels:

Form initially in the connecting stalk (then umbilical cord), anastomose in chorionic and extend maternally toward chorionic villi, extend embryonically to the sinus venosus and dorsal aorta.

19. Placental Layers:
4 layers separate maternal and fetal blood such as syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue and fetal capillary endothelium.

20. Placenta Percreta:
Abnormal, villi penetrate myometrium.

21. Placental Veins:
Paired initially then generally only one left at end of the embryonic period, carry oxygenated blood to the embryo.

22. Placenta Previa:
Placenta overlies internal as of uterus, abnormal bleeding, may require caesarian delivery.

23. Villi:
It is initially an outgrowth of the trophoblastic shell which involves other tissues with development. Improve in sequence (primary, secondary, tertiary) with mature villi being stomper branched type.

24. Primary Villi:
Develop week two, consist of trophoblastic shell cells both syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. Form finger-like extensions into the maternal endometrium.

25. Protein Hormone:
It is generally a protein distributed in the blood that binds to membrane receptors on target cells in different tissues. Do not easily cross the placental barrier.

26. Secondary Villi:
Develop week three, extra-embryonic mesoderm grows into villi, initially covers the entire surface of the chorionic sac.

27. Sinus Venosus:
The cavity into which all major embryonic paired veins supply (vitelline, placental, cardinal).

28. Tertiary Villi:
Develops week four, mesenchyme within secondary villi differentiates into blood vessels and cells, forms an arteriocapillary network, fuse with placental vessels developing in connecting stalk.

29. Umbilical Cord:
Fetal attachment cord which size is a 1-2cm diameter, 30-90cm long, covered with amniotic attached to the chorionic plate, umbilical vessels (artery, vein) branch into chorionic vessels. Vessels anastomose within the placenta.

30. Vasculogenesis:

Formation of first blood vessels by differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells (extraembryonic mesoderm) followed by angiogenesis which is the development of new vessels from already existing vessels.