Thursday, December 6, 2018

Symptoms of Malaria Disease | Mode of Transmission of Malaria | Species of Malarial Parasites

What is Malaria Disease?
Malaria disease is a protozoal disease which is caused by infection with parasites of the genus Plasmodium and transmitted to human by certain species of infected female Anopheles mosquito.
Malaria sign and symptoms
Fig: Malaria sign and symptoms
Malaria is a life-threatening blood disease caused by the parasite that is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito. They infect the host with a one cell parasite known as Plasmodium.

Types of Species of Malarial Parasites:
There are four species of malarial parasites which are listed in the below:

  • Plasmodium Falciparum: Incubation period varies 12 (9-14) days.
  • Plasmodium Vivax: Incubation period varies 14 (8-17) days.
  • Plasmodium Quartan: Incubation period varies 28 (18-40) days.
  • Plasmodium Ovale: Incubation period varies 17 (16-18) days.

Paroxysmal attacks are characteristic of malaria except in Plasmodium falciparum infection.

A typical paroxysm may be divided into:
  • Cold Stage: Lasting for 20min to 1hr,
  • Hot Stage: Lasting for 1-4hr,
  • Seating Stage: Lasting for 2-3hrs.

Types of Fever in Malaria Disease:
There are mainly four types of malaria fever which are explained in the following:

1. Tertian Fever (P. Vivax or p. Ovale):
Paroxysm occurs on alternate days. The spleen becomes palpable.

2. Quatrain Fever (P. Malaria):
Paroxysm occurs at an interval of 2 days. Scanty urine, albuminuria, and hematuria may occur.

3. Falciparum Fever (P. Falciparum):
It may be insidious and the fever continuous, remittent or irregular, typical paroxysms are unusual. Splenomegaly and serious complications may develop.

4. Quotidian Fever:
Fever recurs at intervals of 24hours. Such type fever has been observed in mixed infections with P. vivax and P. malaria due to the maturation of two generations of tertian parasites and three generations of quatrain parasites.

Sign and Symptoms of Malaria Disease:
Clinical manifestations vary according to different species of Plasmodium. Some features are common which are presented in the below:

  1. Fever,
  2. Chill,
  3. Rigor,
  4. A headache,
  5. Muscle pain,
  6. Anemia,
  7. Herpes labials,
  8. Enlargement of spleen and liver,
  9. Mild jaundice.

Mode of Transmission of Malaria Disease:
Vector Transmission:
Malaria is transmitted by the bite of certain species of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.

Direct Transmission: 
It includes- 

  • Infected blood transmission,
  • Congenial malaria,
  • Infected needles.

Susceptible Host:
It includes-

  • Age- all ages are affected,
  • Sex- male > female
  • Immunity- the man has no natural immunity.

More questions related to this article:

  1. What do you mean by malaria?
  2. Define malaria.
  3. What are the causative species of parasites for malaria disease?
  4. Mention four species of malarial parasites.
  5. What types of fever occurred due to malaria disease?
  6. What are the common clinical features of malaria disease?
  7. What are the common sign and symptoms of malaria disease?
  8. What are the major symptoms of malaria disease?
  9. Describe the mode of transmission of malaria disease.
  10. How malaria disease transmits from mosquito to human?