Sunday, November 18, 2018

Pneumonia Disease: Types, Causes and Diagnosis

What Do You Mean by Pneumonia?
Pneumonia can be defined as an acute respiratory illness associated with recently developed radiological pulmonary shadowing which may be segmental labor or multi-labor. 
Pneumonia disease
Fig: Pneumonia disease
It can be defined in another way; Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty in breathing.

Types of Pneumonia Disease:
The total classification of pneumonia disease have presented in the below:

a. Anatomical, Clinical and Radiological Presentation:
It includes-

  • Lobar Pneumonia: Consolidation of a large portion or entire lobe of the lung.
  • Bronchopneumonia: patchy consolidation in lung.

b. Clinical Classification:
It includes-

  • Community acquired pneumonia,
  • Hospital acquired pneumonia,
  • Pneumonia in immune compromised hosts,
  • Pneumonia in damaged lung.

c. Aetiological Classification:
It includes-

  • Allergic: Collagen, vascular disease.
  • Chemical agents: Fumes, gas.
  • Physical: Irradiation. 

Infective: 
It is classified into seven which are in the following: 

  • Fungal: Candida, Actinomycosis, and Histoplasma.
  • Protozoal: E. histolytica, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystitis carinii.
  • Mycoplasmal: M. Pneumonia.
  • Chlamydial: C. Psittaci.
  • Rickettsial: Typhus and Q-fever.

Bacterial:
It includes-

  1. Pneumococci,
  2. Staphylococcus aureus,
  3. Streptococcus pyogens,
  4. Haemophilus influenza,
  5. Mycoplasma pneumoneae,
  6. Klebsiella pneumonia,
  7. M. Tuberculosis.

Viral:
It includes-

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus,
  2. Influenza and para influenza,
  3. Cytomegalo virus,
  4. Measles virus,
  5. Rhino virus,
  6. Adeno virus.

d. Clinical Classification of Pediatrics:

2months to 5 years:
It includes-

  • Very severe disease,
  • Severe pneumonia,
  • Pneumonia,
  • No pneumonia: a Cough and cold.

Less than 2 months:
It includes-

  • Very severe disease,
  • Severe pneumonia,
  • No pneumonia: a Cough and cold.

Causes of Pneumonia Disease:
There are various causes of pneumonia disease which vary according to the age group of patient.

  1. Neonatal Period:
  2. It includes-
  3. E. coli,
  4. Group-B streptococci,
  5. K. pneumonia.

Post Neonatal Period:
It includes-

  1. H. influenza,
  2. Strepto. Pneumonia,
  3. Viruses,
  4. Staph, aureus.

Beyond 5 Years:
It includes-

  1. Chlamydia,
  2. Mycoplasma.

Diagnosis of Pneumonia Disease:
Diagnosis ways of pneumonia disease have briefly explained in the following:

Routine Examination:

a. Inspection:
It includes-

  • Respiratory rate increased.
  • Respiratory movement is diminished on the affected side.

b. Palpation:
It includes-

  • Trachea- central, may be shifted to the opposite side (in pleural effusion).
  • Apex beat-normal in position may be shifted to the opposite side.
  • Chest walls movement is diminished on the affected side.

c. Percussion:
It includes-

  • Woody dull in case of consolidation.
  • Stony dull in case of pleural effusion.

d. Auscultation:
It includes-

  • Breath sound is high pitched bronchial in consolidation and diminished.
  • Vocal resonance is increased in consolidation and diminished or absent in pleural effusion.

Investigation:
It includes-
  • Blood: TC, DC, ESR and culture sensitivity test.
  • Chest X-Ray test,
  • Serological test: To detect the pneumococcal antigen.
  • Sputum: Gram stain- Gram-positive diplococci and sensitivity- pneumococcus can be isolated.

More questions related to this topic:
  1. What is pneumonia?
  2. Describe the classification of pneumonia disease.
  3. Mention different types of pneumonia disease.
  4. What are the causes of pneumonia disease?
  5. Mention some common causes of pneumonia?
  6. What are the reasons behind pneumonia disease?
  7. Describe different diagnosis ways of pneumonia disease?
  8. Mention about the diagnosis of pneumonia.