Friday, November 30, 2018

Pneumonia Complication | Nursing Management of Pneumonia Disease

What is Pneumonia Disease?
Pneumonia disease can be defined as an infection in the lungs parenchyma. It is commonly a complication of a respiratory infection. There are types of sign and symptoms of pneumonia disease such as coughing, fever, chills, sweating, chest pain, shortness of breath etc. 
Nursing management of pneumonia disease
Fig: Nursing management of pneumonia disease
Complications of Pneumonia Disease:
All the complications of pneumonia disease have pointed out in the below:

  1. Empyema,
  2. Pleural effusion,
  3. Bronchiectasis,
  4. Bacteremia,
  5. Septicemia,
  6. Collapse,
  7. Lung abscess,
  8. Subcutaneous emphysema,
  9. Metastatic spread: Meningitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis.

What is Severe Pneumonia According to WHO?
The severity of pneumonia is classified according to the world health organization (WHO), which represents in the below:

1. Severe pneumonia or very severe pneumonia:
Sign or Symptoms:
General danger sign chest in-drawing, Stridor in a calm child.

Treatment:
  • Urgent referral to hospital after giving 1 dose of antibiotics.
  • Advice frequent feeding on the way.

2. Pneumonia:
Sign or Symptoms:
Fast breathing

Treatment:
  • Oral antibiotics for 5 days.
  • Supportive care at home.
  • Advice to follow up as recommended.

3. No pneumonia, Cough or cold:
Sign or Symptoms:
No signs of severe or non-severe pneumonia.

Treatment:
  • Supportive care at home.
  • Advice to follow up as recommended.


Nursing Management of Pneumonia:
Various nursing management ways have discussed in the following:

1. To improve airway patency:
It includes-
  • Removal of secretions: Secretions should be removed because retained secretions interfere with gas exchange and may slow recovery.
  • Adequate hydration of 2 to 3 liters per day thin and loosens pulmonary secretions.
  • Humidification may loosen secretions and improve ventilation.
  • Coughing exercise: Directed cough can also develop airway patency.
  • Chest physiotherapy: It is very important because it mobilizes and loosens.

2. To promote rest and conserve energy:

It includes-
  • Encourage avoidance of overexertion and possible exacerbation of symptoms.
  • Semi-flower’s position: The patient should assume a comfortable position to promote rest and breathing and should change positions frequently to enhance secretion clearance and pulmonary ventilation and perfusion.

3. To promote fluid intake:
Fluid intake: Increase in the fluid intake to at least 2 liters per day to replace insensible fluid losses.

4. To maintain Nutrition:
It includes-
  • Fluids with electrolytes: This may help to provide fluid, calories and electrolytes.
  • Nutrition-enriched beverages: Nutritionally enhanced drinks and shakes can also help to restore proper nutrition.

5. To promote patients knowledge:
It includes-
  • Instruct patient and family about the cause of pneumonia, management of symptoms, signs and symptoms and the need for follow-up.
  • Suggest the patient about the factors that may have contributed to the development of the disease.

More questions related to this topic:
The below questions are totally related to the article topic.
  1. Define pneumonia.
  2. What do you mean by pneumonia disease?
  3. What are the common complications of pneumonia disease?
  4. Explain the nursing management of pneumonia disease?
  5. Discuss nursing management of pneumonia in pediatrics.
  6. Describe pediatric pneumonia guidelines.
  7. Describe the nursing care plan for pneumonia disease.
  8. How do you care for someone with pneumonia?
  9. Discuss nursing care plan for the lung abscess.