Prevention of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in Developing Countries

What is Infant Mortality rate (IMR)?
The ratio of the total number of deaths less than 1 year of age during a year in an area to the number of live births in the same year and in the same area multiplied by one thousand is termed as infant mortality rate (IMR). 
Infant mortality prevention strategies
Fig: Infant mortality prevention strategies
Infant Mortality Rate Calculation Formula:

Infant mortality rate (IMR),
            Total number of deaths under 1 year of age in an area during a year
= …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. × 1000
                       Number of live births in the same year and same area

Infant mortality rate (IMR) = 57/1000 live birth.

Infant Mortality Prevention Strategies:
The below strategies should follow to reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) in the developing countries like Bangladesh:

A. Identification of High-Risk Parents:

1. Intrauterine infections:
Several organisms can produce congenital anomalies as well as increase the risk of low-birth-weight infants.

2. Maternal age:
Mothers younger than 18 have an increased risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant.

3. Maternal history of reproductive problems:
Women who have experienced adverse conditions during prior pregnancies (e.g. premature labor, vaginal bleeding, hypertension, miscarriage, and delivery of a low-birth-weight or stillborn infant) have an increased risk of adverse outcomes in subsequent pregnancies.

4. Preexisting maternal illness:

Such conditions include heart, kidney and thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and substance abuse. Early detection and aggressive management of maternal illness can reduce the toll of infant loss.

B. Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies among High-Risk Parents:
It may involve genetic counseling, sex education, and family planning.

C. Management of High-Risk Pregnancies:

It includes the followings:
  • Regular screening and monitoring throughout pregnancy,
  • Early antenatal care (within the first trimester),
  • Delivery in a hospital equipped to manage potential problems related to obstetric risk factors.
  • Provision of medical, nutrition and social services appropriate to the level of risk.

D. Management of High-Risk Newborn:
Management of high-risk newborn includes:
  • Immediate access to an intensive care nursery.
  • Continues medical, social and nutritional monitoring following discharge from the intensive care nursery.

More Preventive Measures of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):
There are few others preventive measures of infant mortality rate. Those are presented in the below:

A. Certain Important Measure:
It includes-
  • Low birth rate,
  • Improvement of primary health care,
  • Highest literacy rate (especially family literacy).

B. Other Preventive Measures:

It includes-
  • Prevention of infections e.g. six killer disease,
  • Prenatal nutrition,
  • Growth monitoring,
  • Environmental sanitation,
  • Socio-economic development,
  • Exclusive breastfeeding,
  • Family planning,
  • Simple hygiene measure.

More questions related to this article:
  1. What is infant mortality rate?
  2. What is infant mortality rate calculation formula?
  3. What are the strategies to reduce infant mortality rate in Bangladesh?
  4. Mention some measures to reduce infant mortality rate in developing countries.
  5. How to reduce child mortality in Bangladesh?
  6. What are the ways to reduce infant mortality rate in developing countries?
  7. How can we reduce child mortality humanities?
  8. How can we prevent child mortality humanities?
  9. How will you prevent IMR in Bangladesh?
  10. Mention some preventive and social measurement of infant mortality rate.
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